Waves II, 2016
Lithograph, inkjet, etching, and aquatint
Image size: 14 1/2'' x 29 3/4''
Paper size: 15'' x 29 3/4''
Edition of 25
Printed by Judith Solodkin, Solo Impression, and Gregory Burnet, Burnet Editions
Published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art
In 1920, the A. R. Ohman Map Co. published two maps, "Map of the Borough of Brooklyn Racial Colonies" and "Map of the Borough of Manhattan and part of The Bronx Racial Colonies," which came to be known as the Red Scares maps. They were originated in 1919 by the Lusk Committee (New York State Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate Seditious Activities). After World World I and the Bolshevik Revolution, when worldwide leftist movements were emerging, there was much labor unrest, nativist sentiment, fear and backlash in the United States. In 1920, Ellis Island reopened and 225,206 people, mostly from southern and eastern Europe, were processed and entered the country. In 1921, restrictive laws were passed, 1000 people were arrested and newspapers raided. These color-coded maps locate the new immigrant groups by neighborhood. (Russian, Polish and other Jews are red, for instance).
In 2015, Kozloff made a collage, "Waves," based on the Brooklyn map for an exhibition at the Brooklyn Historical Society, "Mapping Brooklyn," onto which she overlaid new immigrant groups. This year, she created a print (half lithograph, half etching), "Waves II," for the Metropolitan Museum based on the Manhattan map. Due to massive gentrification and income inequality, most of Manhattan is closed to these current waves, but there are clusters of recently arrived communities to the south and north, which are indicated by color. In her print, the altered island of Manhattan is at the top (the lithograph) and symbolic waves are etched across the bottom.